Category Archives: Restore

Life in the Flood Plain

“When the last tree is cut, the last fish is caught, and the last river is polluted; when to breathe the air is sickening, you will realize, too late, that wealth is not in bank accounts and that you can’t eat money.” -Alanis Obomsawin

This is my home, and I love it. Mosquitoes are everywhere, flood waters often interrupt my schedule, and none of the popular crops grow well here. But it’s wonderful. Some of the most exciting, nutritious, delicious food crops are native to this kind of habitat. And if I plant the right things, the flood waters will actually help my crops grow better by providing free fertilizers and no-work irrigation. Some fascinating animals live here too! On many a summer night, I am serenaded to sleep by a world class symphony of frog singers. I’ve met snakes and lizards and herons and eagles and fish and butterflies. It’s a challenging, but very rewarding habitat.

Bucket of litter collected from a wetland

The wetland at Strawberry Moon Farm is awash in the river about four times per year. After each and every flood, the byproducts of modern convenience are left behind in that field. Gallons and gallons of trash float in on the wild currents. If I don’t clean it up, it will float downstream to one of my neighbors during the next storm. It will become someone else’s problem, but no less of one. Large items crash in and crush our small trees: a picnic table, a fire extinguisher, hunting gear, and mounds of agricultural waste. Small items float through and cause harm to our wild friends: plastic wrappers, straws, and bottle caps.

A picnic table in an open field
Plastic Straw Littered In A Wetland

An image of one specific plastic straw became infamous last year. That particular straw was lodged inside the nostril of a sea turtle. Encouragingly, humanity is rallying together to help reduce ocean pollution and protect sea creatures like that turtle.

The straw pictured above was found here, in our wetland, in Midwestern USA. Indiana is not near an ocean, but it is home to more than fifteen species of turtles. Our rivers, streams, and lakes host a myriad of fish, reptiles, and amphibians. Majestic Bald Eagles and stately Blue Herons dive into these fresh waters every day, in attempt to feed themselves and their offspring. The plastic epidemic is not confined to the oceans. Litter is not someone else’s problem.

Styrofoam and a Medicine Bottle Littered In A Wetland

Feeling outraged or depressed or disillusioned will not change our situation, so let’s not waste our energy. There are simple, specific things we can all do to spark positive change in the world. Start with your own community. Take care of your own trash. Pick up litter where you see it (if you can do so safely). Ask your friends to do the same. Pack out your trash when you go camping or hiking rather than leaving it in the woods. If you can avoid consuming single use plastics, do so. If you can’t, try to dispose of those plastics in a responsible way. Recycle what you can recycle and build ecobricks. Secure the lids on your trash cans so your discarded items don’t blow away. And plant trees. Did you know trees are one of the Earth’s natural filters? Not only do they help clean the water and protect the soil, but they also help us catch our mistakes as they float or fly by. They give us a chance to clean those things up before they float farther downstream.

Escaped Plastic Flower Arrangement
I can almost always find a synthetic flower arrangement or two in this drainage ditch near my home, across the street from a cemetery. Well-meaning people often adorn the graves of their loved ones with arrangements like this one, but the wind blows them away into natural areas where they may end up causing significant harm. Please consider honoring your loved ones with biodegradable arrangements instead.

We Earthlings are dealing with a lot right now, and much of it is beyond our control. Taking responsibility for my own consumption and waste is something I can control. Taking responsibility for yours is within your control. It’s a positive step we can take to make the world a better place. Things that once mattered, still matter. And maybe they matter even more now. Let’s care for each other in this way.

A spring ramp, or wild leek, emerging

Farming the Woodland

When we look at garden catalogues, almost every plant description mentions “Full Sun”.  Almost every common food plant seems to require it, but there are many exciting, delicious, and beneficial crops that prefer shade.  That’s important information, because the mature trees and woodlands that are most often responsible for creating that shade are tremendously valuable.  If we view our trees as a hindrance to our gardening and farming efforts, then we become more likely to remove them, or to avoid planting them in the first place.  When we truly understand the ecosystems trees create, we can enter into a mutually beneficial partnership with them.  Furthermore, many of these shade-loving food crops are native to Midwestern USA.  When we grow native food plants, we nurture not only ourselves but also the beautiful community of wildlife, birds, butterflies, and other insects that depend on those plants.

A Smattering of Deep Shade Crops:

  • Ramps (native)
  • Ostrich Ferns aka Fiddleheads (native)
  • American Ginseng (native high-value medicinal crop)
  • Edible & Medicinal Mushrooms (native and non-native varieties)
  • Nuts or fruits from the large trees creating the deep shade (native and non-native)
  • Maple Syrup (the best syrup trees (sugar maple & red maple) are both native!)

A Sampler of Woodland Edge Crops (part shade):

  • Blackberries (native)
  • Black Raspberries (native)
  • Red Raspberries (not native)
  • Violets (Native violet leaves & flowers are great in salads. Non-native sweet violet flowers are used in perfumes, candies, and flavor syrups.)
  • Red Mulberries (Morus Rubra – native. Not to be confused with the more commonly found invasive white mulberry Morus Alba.)
  • Grapes (several species are native)
  • American Elder (Flowers and berries are used for food and medicine. Native.)
  • Spicebush (Bay Laurel relative. Leaves are used for tea, and berries are used like allspice. Native!)
  • Sassafras (Bay Laurel relative. Leaves are an important ingredient in gumbo (file).)
  • Honeyberry (non-native but non-invasive fruit crop)
  • Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana, native)
  • Stinging Nettles (The stinging mechanism deactivates when cooked properly, and then they are a delicious and highly nutritious vegetable. Some nettles are not native, but Urtica dioica subsp. gracilis is native!)

Woodland cultivation poses different advantages and different challenges than full sun gardening. Some special considerations include:

  • Cleaning up downed trees and limbs after storms
  • Maintaining access paths to the planting areas
  • Removing invasive species
  • Removing poison ivy
  • Reducing Mosquitoes

It’s a fascinating topic and we’re just getting started. I look forward to learning more and more about woodland gardening as I gain experience, and sharing that new knowledge with you here. I hope you’ll try a shade crop or two if you have a woodsy spot on your property! And more importantly, I hope you’ll look at trees as garden friends rather than foes.

The Foundation of Our Future

Gardening has enjoyed increased popularity in recent months. Perhaps because we’re all spending more time in our homes and our yards due to shelter in place rules. Perhaps because many of us have lost our incomes due to economic shutdowns and are trying to reduce our food costs. Perhaps because it’s great therapy during stressful times. Whatever your reason for beginning a garden, welcome to the pastime. I’m glad you’re here. And I want you to succeed, which is why I’m about to share the #1 most important garden success tip I know: grow compost. Compost is the absolute lifeblood, and the foundation of a healthy organic garden. If you have some food scraps and a few spare minutes per day, you can do this. And if you do, you’ll be rewarded with beautiful rich soil that will help your garden succeed. It’s one of nature’s great miracles.

What is compost? It’s a nutrient rich soil amendment that you can make from your unwanted food scraps. Soil loves it, worms love it, and plants love it. To start, you’ll need materials from two categories: “greens” and “browns”. Greens are fresh, moist plant products that could include food scraps, grass clippings, certain manures, and weeds. Browns are dried, dead things like fallen autumn leaves, wood chips, or paper. People have done research on creating the ideal balanced compost pile and there is plenty of literature available on that topic. I don’t measure my compost very carefully though. I just shoot for roughly twice as much brown material as green. If you have too much brown material, the compost process will be very slow. If you have too much green material, the compost will smell and might get very hot. If that happens, just adjust as necessary and keep composting. It will all work out.

Once you have some materials, you’ll need a place to put them. This can be as simple as an open pile in the back yard with no structure whatsoever, or as fancy as a compost tumbler. I’ve tried a number of different composting systems, and they all produce the same compost. The difference is mainly in how tidy they look, and how much effort is required to produce the compost.

Mantis ComposTumbler Compost Tumbler

The compost tumbler pictured to the right of this paragraph (made by Mantis) is the pièce de résistance of my compost system. I watched Craigslist for years, waiting for it to be listed there at an affordable price. The hand crank design makes it very easy to turn the compost every day. By turning the compost every day, and keeping it moist, compost is finished in just a few weeks.

Wire Bins for Compost Overflow
Wire Bins holding compostable materials that don’t fit in my tumbler. They look messy, but they do the job!

Between actively managed batches of compost in the tumbler, I store compostable materials in these wire bins as overflow. If I was constantly adding new materials to the tumbler, then the materials added later in the cycle wouldn’t be finished composting at the same time as the materials added in the beginning, meaning that there would always be some whole banana peels in my compost. So I use these wire bins to store the materials in waiting. You can see from the photo that I have quite a backlog of compostables, but I plan to completely catch up now that I’m a full time farmer (aka unemployed…)! Even if I didn’t have the tumbler, I could finish these compostables just as quickly by turning them every day with a pitch fork. But, that would take more free time than I have. Or, I could turn them less often, and they would turn into compost over a longer period of time (maybe several months). Or, I could not turn them at all, and they would still become compost after a few years! Moisture is necessary to the composting process though, so try to water your compost pile during periods of drought. Once per week is enough. It should be moist like your garden soil, but not soggy.

You’ll know your compost is finished with it reduces to at least half its original size, no longer feels hot to the touch, and looks like rich black soil. It should not contain any large recognizable chunks of banana. It should smell neutral and earthy.

Ideas for “Greens” To Use In Your Compost:

  • Vegetable peels
  • Used Coffee Grounds
  • Apple cores
  • Banana Peels
  • Leftovers nobody wants to eat
  • That parsley you bought with good intentions but it got all wilty and gross in the back of your crisper
  • Moldy bread
  • Livestock manure, or manure from certain herbivorous pets (do your own research on this, not all manures are safe to add)
  • Weeds you pulled from your garden (but be sure not to include their seeds)
  • Grass clippings

Browns:

  • Unbleached Napkins
  • Unbleached Coffee Filters
  • Unbleached Paper
  • Fallen autumn leaves (preferably shredded)
  • Straw
  • Wood Chips (these will take a long time to break down, delaying your compost, but they do work)

Items Generally Recommended Not To Compost:

  • Plastic-looking items that say “compostable” on them. These are only compostable if they’re heated first. Industrial composting facilities can handle these types of items, but it’s difficult to manage at home.
  • Items that are bleached or dyed. Though I add these to my compost anyway, as long as they make up a tiny percentage of total compost.
  • Meat or dairy products. These products can make your compost smell, and possibly attract animals to your compost pile. However, I add them anyway, because I don’t care about those consequences.
  • Foods that are very salty or oily. Again, I do this anyway as long as those items constitute a tiny percentage of my total compost. If there’s too much salt in the compost it can harm plants, and oil takes a long time to fully break down. In tiny amounts, I don’t notice any problems.

Our Plastic Legacy

I try really hard to avoid plastic waste. I recycle, I carry reusable utensils in my pockets to avoid consuming single-use flatware, I bring my own reusable bags to the grocery store, and I try to avoid the infamous plastic drinking straws at restaurants. But try as I may, plastic is everywhere. It’s unavoidable for most of us. And much of it is not even recyclable. So what is an eco-loving citizen to do with all those unavoidable plastic wrappers, bubble mailers, old toothbrushes, zip ties, and other small miscellaneous non-recyclable plastics? We could throw them in the trash, but these small, lightweight articles are very likely to blow away and cause harm to water, wetlands, wildlife, and ultimately to ourselves. Since these deadly convenience items persist in our environment for many lifetimes, their cycle of harm repeats on a loop.

The ultimate solution to this problem is too big for any one person to solve completely. We need corporations to refuse to make this stuff. We need scientists to develop better building materials for products. And since so far, the money is on the other side of this argument, we’ll probably need politicians as well. But I do not fit into any of those categories, and likely, neither do you. Nevertheless, we don’t have to participate in this harmful cycle. We can choose a more responsible, constructive second life for the unavoidable plastics that cross our paths. And in the process, we can also build cool, useful stuff that just might make the world a better place.

Enter: the Ecobrick. An Ecobrick is a plastic bottle, packed tightly with wrappers and small plastic items, then sealed with a screw top lid. If you pack the bottle tightly enough, it can become a weight bearing building material, similar to a brick. Even better, the tiny wrappers and other small items stored inside the bottle are effectively imprisoned, thereby prevented from wreaking havoc on the greater ecosystem.

Completed Ecobricks
My Collection of Completed Ecobricks

I’ve been packing my own plastic (and some plastics from friends and coworkers) into empty drink bottles for the past 10 months. It takes some time, but I find it meditative and stress-relieving. It’s surprising how many items fit inside one bottle. It can take me multiple weeks to fill one bottle, even when combining my home plastics with those from my office. Someday, eventually, I hope to collect enough of these “bricks” to build a new potting shed in the garden using Ecobricks and cob as the primary building materials. It will probably take a long time to collect enough bricks for this goal, but that’s okay. I view it as a lifelong practice. Or at least, for as long as disposable plastic items remain ubiquitous on our planet.

Let’s Get Started!

There are already really good instructions on how to make an ecobrick from the Global Ecobrick Alliance, so I won’t repeat that here. To start, all you need is a clean and dry drink bottle, and a sturdy, smooth stick that is longer than your bottle and less than half as wide as your bottle opening. You can pack the bottle with plastic items as you encounter them, or store up all your packing plastics throughout the week until you have a free evening to stuff them. I do a mix of both depending on my schedule. Everything that goes into the brick must be mostly clean and totally dry. For example, if I have an empty bag of chips, I might turn it upside down and shake out the crumbs before stuffing it into the bag. If it’s oily inside, I’ll wipe it out with a towel before packing it inside my bottle. If I have an item soiled with significant food residue, I wash that with water and dish soap and then dry it alongside my clean dishes before packing it inside the bottle.

What Can Go Inside The Bottle:

Examples of plastics that can be packed inside of bottles to make ecobricks
  • Empty bags of chips
  • Candy bar wrappers
  • Drinking straws
  • Empty bags of frozen fruits and vegetables
  • Cellophane wrap
  • Sandwich bags
  • Shopping bags
  • Twist ties
  • Zip ties
  • Bubble Mailers
  • Styrofoam
  • Discarded toothbrushes
  • Crushed up plastic utensils
  • Empty bags of coffee
  • Tea bag wrappers
  • Wine capsules (the colorful plastic seals that cover the cork and bottle neck)
  • Lots of other items. If it’s plastic and it’s soft or tiny, it can go inside your brick!

What To Do With Completed Ecobricks:

The Global Ecobrick Alliance has another great article called Building with Ecobricks that is definitely worth reading. The section called Earth Bottle Building describes the cob technique I plan to use for the potting shed. If you decide you don’t have any use for ecobricks but you’re still interested in making some, you could donate them to someone who can use them. We do accept ecobrick donations here at Strawberry Moon Farm, as do some other organizations and individuals. If you know you want to donate your ecobricks, find out in advance what kind of bottle your recipient builds with. It’s important that all the bottles be the same size for effective and aesthetic building, so your bottles will need to match those of the project you’re donating towards. You can look for someone accepting ecobrick donations near you on the GoBrik website. This site also encourages you to log your ecobricks, assign unique serial numbers to them, and share validations within the ecobrick community. Feel free to join the Strawberry Moon Farm community on GoBrik!

Gatorade and Pepsi Bottle Ecobricks
28oz Gatorade (left) 20 oz Pepsi (right)

I use two types of bottles. The first is the 28 ounce Gatorade bottle. It’s the middle size gatorade that is often sold at gas stations. This one is nice because it is a very sturdy bottle, and it has a wide opening so you can include larger items. The other bottle is the 20 ounce Pepsi bottle (or any other 20 ounce Pepsi product such as Mountain Dew, Dr Pepper, 7-Up, Bubly sparkling water, Aquafina bottled water). This is a flimsier bottle with a narrower opening, and I find it a little harder to stuff than the Gatorade. However, they’re much more common, so if you have trouble finding a 28 ounce Gatorade bottle, this might be a great option for you. Whichever bottle you choose, happy bricking!

How To Choose A Garden Tool That Will Last A Lifetime: The Top 5 Questions to Ask Before Buying

Spring is here, and so are the 1,000 trees I purchased to plant here at Strawberry Moon. Of course, my favorite digging tool broke after planting the first 50 trees. It shouldn’t have been a surprise.  I bought that spading fork before I knew what made a good, durable tool.

Broken Spading Fork
Death By Clay

It’s not the first tool that has perished at the hands of my Indiana clay soil. I broke my first garden tool in my second year of growing.  It was a hoe.  The metal hoe flew off the wooden handle, and that was that.  Nothing I tried could reattach the handle securely enough for it to function as a hoe again*.  Since then, there have been many other casualties of the trade: leaky cheap hoses, cracked plastic watering cans, bent cultivator tines and splintered wooden handles.  Poorly made tools waste your time and your money, waste our precious natural resources, and could even cause injury.  I understood this then as well as now.  Some of these broken tools came with lengthy warranties, none of them were the cheapest tool at the box store, and they all looked and felt sturdy at the time.  So if you are willing to shell out the extra cash for a top of the line tool, how do you find the right one?  How can you tell if a tool is really built to last a lifetime, or just overpriced to give the illusion of quality?  Here are some criteria I’ve found to be important in choosing my tools.

1. The #1 most common problem I have experienced with long handled tools is that the handle separates from the metal tool head. When choosing a new tool, look at the attachment between the handle and the metal implement. If you see that the metal is crimped around a handle and expected to stay on by tension alone, don’t buy the tool!  Buy one that is attached with removable screws, or all one piece. Not only is this type of connection more secure, but it is user serviceable. If that handle detaches or breaks, you can replace the handle without having to buy a whole new tool.

Garden tool with improperly attached head
This tool head is not sufficiently attached to the handle. The handle will separate from the head.  Even if you manage to reattach it, the same problem will likely reoccur repeatedly.

Garen Tool With Rivet Attached Head
This tool head is securely attached to the handle with a rivet fastener, but if the handle rots or breaks, it may be more difficult to remove the rivet than a simple screw or bolt.  However, I am told it can be done.

Garen Tool With Screw Attached Head
This tool head is securely attached to the handle with a removable screw. It should stay securely attached, and if the handle does break, another can be easily installed.

2. Look for good quality metal. Research the type of metal used in the tool you are considering to find out if it’s strong enough to resist bending and denting, reasonably easy to sharpen, and able to hold a sharp edge well.  Hoes, knives, spades, and scythes all require periodic sharpening to perform their best.  Hand cultivators and spading forks should be thick and very strong.  All metal tools should be reasonably rust resistant.  Care for your metal tools by keeping them clean and dry.  If light rust does occur, you can scrub it away and apply oil to prevent it from returning.

A rubber mallet with a broken handle
I bet this never happened to Thor’s hammer.

3. The handle must be strong. I once bought a rubber mallet with a cheap wooden handle. Eventually, the handle broke in half, rendering the entire tool useless. If you are buying a tool with a wooden handle, Ash is the ideal wood. It’s what baseball bats are made of.  When buying knives, look for a full tang (the blade runs through the entire length of the handle as one solid piece of metal).  Care for your wooden handles by rubbing them with walnut oil or mineral oil annually or more frequently as needed.

4. Ergonomic design is also extremely important for any tool you will use regularly. Is the tool comfortable to hold? Does it utilize your biggest muscle groups (arms rather than wrists, legs rather than back)? Can it be used in multiple positions to prevent overuse injuries?  Can it be used while your back is straight?  Protect your body. It’s the best tool you have, and it’s irreplaceable.

5. Company reputation and warranty sometimes indicate long lasting products. If a company has been in business a long time, has a good reputation, and stands by their products with a 10 year or longer warranty, then they probably made a good tool.  That said, the broken spading fork that inspired this article came with a 25 year warranty, and only lasted a few seasons.  It appears to have been attached by setting the metal “stem” in some sort of resin or concrete-like substance.  The molded base cracked, setting the fork free from the handle.  Yet another decapitation victim!  So while a long warranty period is definitely a good sign, it’s not necessarily a guarantee that the tool will last.

You probably won’t find any top quality tools at your local box store, and I haven’t had much luck at my local garden centers either.  If you’re lucky enough to live near a hand tool specialty store like Earth Tools**, then you’ll be able to try out various high quality tools in the store, and ask the experts your questions.  Farm and garden conventions also often offer a nice selection of hand tools in the vendor hall, and of course pretty much everything is available online.  There are a lot of great brands out there, but I’ve become somewhat smitten with the DeWit** line.  They have some really inventive designs, and the quality seems to be top notch.  I’ve only been using their tools for a year, but I haven’t managed to break one yet.  Regarding the aforementioned plastic watering can, I replaced it with a nice metal one by Haws**.  I’m so far extremely pleased with the build quality and ergonomic aspects, but time will tell if it was actually worth the exorbitant price tag.  I don’t consider myself an expert on hoses yet, but in general, the really heavy, thick ones last a lot longer than the lightweight flimsy ones.

*I threw that broken hoe into the trash can at the community garden space, and a fellow gardener rescued it and reattached the head by welding. So if you have welding equipment, a detached tool head might not be the end of the day for you! I still recommend the screw attachment heads, because a projectile hoe head can be dangerous and decidedly inconvenient.

**Suggestions, NOT affiliate links.  I was hesitant to include any links because I’m not here to sell you stuff, but I thought they might really be useful to you.  Live your life according to your own purpose, think for yourself, own your own choices, and shop wherever you want.

Growing Great Soil With Cover Crops

My first garden at the Greenwood Community Garden

My first garden was far from perfect.  It was a rented space in a community garden, with hard, rocky, clay fill dirt that caused most of my neighbors to abandon their own plots by June.  I stayed and gave my heart, soul, and sweat to that soil for three years before I ever reaped a decent harvest.  Each year, I spread several truckloads of mulch, pulled thousands of weeds, and cried over the deaths of drowned plants, frozen plants, sick plants, trampled plants and nibbled plants.  But eventually, the garden became healthy and fertile.  I wouldn’t change a thing about my first garden, because the lessons it taught me have served me well.  The most important thing I learned was that good soil is absolutely essential to a successful organic garden.

If you are gardening on a small scale, you might be able to bypass your soil all together, by growing food in containers or raised beds filled with store-bought perfect soil.  Or, you might be able to make enough compost to sufficiently enrich the soil you have.  But what if you need to fix acres of hardpan clay soil?  It would take decades for one person to make that much compost, and many thousands of dollars to build acres of raised beds.  An excellent solution can be found in cover crops.

Sorghum-Sudangrass Cover CropA cover crop is a plant that is grown specifically for the benefit of the soil.  There are many kinds of cover crops, each with its own magical power.  There are crops that create nitrogen from nothing but air and bacteria, crops that mine minerals from deep within the ground, crops that smother weeds, and crops that control pests.  These crops are chosen for their ability to grow vigorously even in poor soil, and for their ability to leave the soil better than they found it.  The specific problem at Strawberry Moon Farm was compacted clay soil.  The soil was hard, and rainwater stagnated in puddles for days rather than soaking peacefully into the ground.  So I selected sorghum-sudangrass, a crop with five-foot-deep roots to break up the soil.  As a bonus, it also has ten-foot-tall foliage, which will provide plenty of mulch at the end of the season.  The sorghum-sudangrass has performed extremely well so far, even with no fertilizer, pesticides, or irrigation.  You can learn more about the types of cover crops and how they work from SARE (Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education).  I plan to invest in a few more cover crops to reap still more benefits for the soil at Strawberry Moon, to give our organic orchards, vineyards, and vegetable gardens the best possible chance to thrive.

Cover crops are extremely useful for building great soil on a large scale, and they are just as useful for small gardens.  Consider growing a quick midsummer crop of buckwheat between your spring peas and your autumn radishes, or maybe a spring crop of alfalfa before you plant your tomatoes next year. It’s an affordable, easy, and effective strategy to boost production in your vegetable garden and on our farm.

 

Farming The Wetland

Strawberry Moon Farm in Lunar Eclipse
Strawberry Moon Farm in Lunar Eclipse

My husband and I looked for our farm for 18 months.  He only wanted a beautiful house, but I only cared about great land.  When we finally found something we could both love, we were both willing to make a few compromises.  I had been looking for a flat, sunny, well-drained, rectangular field; a blank canvas I could transform into my vision of the perfect fruit-filled paradise.  But this land had woods.  It had hills.  It had a flood plain.  It had its own plans.

We ended up with 10 acres of incredibly diverse land.  About 3 acres were wooded, and about 1.5 acres were in a flood plain.  The low land was classified as a once in 100 year flood plain for the adjacent creek, but after we moved in, we realized that a more accurate classification would have been three floods every single year.  Later, we learned that this part of our farm was a natural wetland, a former creek bottom.  I’m not easily discouraged, but this news was disappointing at best.  I didn’t think any useful or edible plants could be grown in this type of environment.  Luckily, I was wrong.

A creek overflows, creating flooded corn fields and road floods
Our natural wetland, flooded by an overflowing creek

As it turns out, wetlands can be beautiful, productive ecosystems capable of producing food, filtering flood waters, and sheltering wildlife.  If you’re trying to turn land like this into a corn field (which the previous owners were), you’re going to be sorely disappointed.  But if you protect the soil and encourage permanent, water-loving trees and shrubs, you and the land will be very happy together.  Pecans, maples, willows, and elderberries are just a few of the species that can thrive and produce in this type of environment.  By working with the water instead of against it, you can build a lush food forest that nourishes you at the same time as it drains and cleans the flood waters.

The reason why it’s a bad idea to till up a flood plain field and plant it to row crops like corn has to do with erosion.  Erosion occurs when water or other forces remove topsoil from the land and move it elsewhere.  Usually, this topsoil ends up someplace it isn’t wanted, like in a waterway.  The nutrients (like nitrogen and phosphorus) and sediments from the displaced soil disrupt the balance in the water.  This can kill fish, and generally damage the ecosystem.  Meanwhile, your land grows poorer and poorer as all its nutrients and topsoil are stripped away.  When you till, or when you leave bare soil exposed, the soil is vulnerable and easy to wash away.  But when it is densely covered with plants, myriad roots hold that soil in place.  The plants shelter and protect the topsoil, and when floods come, the water is absorbed into the root system or filtered through aerated soil into the groundwater table.

There’s a thing called a Riparian Buffer.  According to Wikipedia:
“A riparian buffer is a vegetated area (a “buffer strip”) near a stream, usually forested, which helps shade and partially protect a stream from the impact of adjacent land uses. It plays a key role in increasing water quality in associated streams, rivers, and lakes, thus providing environmental benefits. With the decline of many aquatic ecosystems due to agricultural production, riparian buffers have become a very common conservation practice aimed at increasing water quality and reducing pollution.”

My plan is to create an edible Riparian Forest Buffer.  The goal is to have all the benefits of soil and water conservation, but to also harvest and use something from each of the plants and trees in the buffer.  Strawberry Moon is not the first farm to try this, but it is not yet a ubiquitous practice.  I hope that this riparian buffer project will encourage more people to try this ecologically sound farming style.  If farmers can increase yields while at the same time protecting the environment, why not do this?  There is even financial aid available from some government organizations to make the transition from conventional farming to riparian buffers easier.  I’ll post more about that later, when I have all the facts.  Meanwhile, spring is coming.  Be ready!